The Bicycle Life

Having arrived in Barcelona to work over the summer, I was told that it is a beautiful city to ride a bicycle around. Barcelona was built-up for the success of the 1992 Olympic Games, which were held here. As such, this city was designed very well by city-planners, and I’d like to argue that it is the most ergonomic city I have ever lived in, in my short tenure on this planet (sorry, Stockholm! You are a close second for sure, despite being much larger than Barcelona). The streets here have designated cycle lanes, and wide spaces for pedestrians too. There are trees along every street providing much needed shade in the summer heat, and there are public drinking water fountains all over the place. Public transport is airconditioned (not energy efficient I know but one can’t help but be thankful when it is 30°C at 8am) and simple to use. The fact that I can dish out these complements in the peak of tourist season definitely shows that this city is doing something right!

Once you move to Europe you will definitely want to get in on the bicycle life. It is green and emission-free, gives you great mobility and fitness. Who hasn’t dreamed of living in Amsterdam and SnapChatting pictures of the bicycle-traffic-jam you are stuck in? Luckily most European cities are ‘hopping’ onto the bicycle trend now, and there are city-wide rental/subscription systems popping up all over the place. And not to be out-done, China will be leading the bicycle revolution shortly.

Here in Barcelona, I was actually a bit disappointed with the municipal-run bicycle renting system, ‘Bicing’. It seems to work very well and is very cheap, but the subscriptions are yearly (not convenient for everyone) and worst of all – you have to go through endless bureaucracy to get the Spanish identity number that would give you access to it. Having just spent a month in Grenoble, which has by far the simplest and best bicycle-renting company I have ever come across (‘Métrovélo’), I was a bit disappointed to find that without forking out something like 6-12€ per day to rent through private companies, I wouldn’t be able to live out my bicycle dreams in Barcelona.

The Métrovélo system works as follows: you can rent a bicycle for various periods of time, hours/ days/ months, up to a year, with a 200€ deposit and a formal identification document. You are then given your very own adorable sunshine-yellow bicycle which comes with 2 locks and an optional basket for the front. The bicycle is yours for the period of time! Any issues, and you can take it in to the head office and they will look at it for you. Without damage, you will get your deposit back when you return it. I can’t think of a better system that works for tourists, residents and everything in between. Granted, this is a small city and the opportunity for bicycles to go missing is rather diminished, but there must be a way to scale this idea up to the large-cities!

I’m sure there are many people like me that are in place for a few weeks or months at a time (I’m not the only one bouncing around Europe like this, surely?!) – and I wonder how long it will take for the mobility sector to catch-up with any-term rental structures such as that of Métrovélo. I hope next time you are in a new place you consider the bicycle option instead of public transport or car rental. Try it out, you might just end up addicted to the bicycle life!


Climate Change in the Media

Image result for make the planet great again
We talk a lot about energy in this Master's. Sometimes we forget about the end goal of what we are studying: to reverse climate change. Many students in this Master's are aware of simple acts we can take to be as environmentally sustainable as possible: recycling, trying to use less energy at home by turning off lights, etc. But outside of a Master's like this where sustainability is the focus, what information are people getting about taking personal actions to combat climate change?

Despite the US's disastrous decision to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement, many very popular news outlets there release pro-environment articles addressed to the common citizen to help them become aware of what they can do on a personal level. Two such articles have caught my eye: The New York Times "What You Can Do About Climate Change" and Forbes "9 Things You Can Do About Climate Change". Despite the very similar titles, the articles offer some different tips while of course, some still overlap.

The Forbes list is the very quintessential list of things to do to be environmentally conscious: line dry your clothes instead of using a drying machine (reducing your energy consumption), reduce and reuse before you recycle, and offset your carbon emissions where you can. What fascinated me though was that Forbes number one tip on the list was to become vegetarian, or even better, vegan. Coming from a news outlet that tends to focus on business and how to make money, something so vastly "hippie" is unexpected. Of course the article comes with the heading that "Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own" but it is still getting published by Forbes, a very popular news source in the business world with the first line of the article (the caption under the picture) being "If everyone in the U.S. gave up meat and cheese just one day a week, it would be equivalent to not driving 91 billion miles, or taking 7.6 million cars off the road". This is an amazing thing.

More than the list itself, the fact that this list was getting published in such a news outlet made me very optimistic. Most of us will know everything on that list, but the normal audience Forbes reaches might not. Now, when you go to The New York Times, which reaches a much wider audience, you come across more interesting tips. The first tip on that list is not become vegetarian but that it is more environmentally sustainable to buy vegetables from a country far away than to buy local meat; that the emissions generated from bringing the vegetables to your city from far away are not as high as the emissions generated to produce a steak in your city. This is a very interesting fact that I'm not sure even many of us knew in this Master's. So now imagine the audience that The New York Times is reaching. That's incredible. This article also mentioned that flying does have a very high environmental impact but that in some cases, driving could actually be worse environmentally (even with an electric car in some cases).

Again, usually these lists that are generated are the same cookie-cutter lists that most of us already know (and hopefully implement). But sometimes they really surprise you and teach you something to the contrary of what you thought you knew. I always like to read through what popular news sources are advocating when it comes to climate change. What do you think of the lists presented in these articles and do you think it is interesting to see from which news sources they come from?

Gathering of different brains all around the world: Master's School KICK-OFF

“Scientists discover the world that exists; engineers create the world that never was.” I was motivated by a quote by Theodore von Karman. Yes we do, we make the world to be a better place for the humans. Actually, not just for the humans; current technologies developed and engineers evaluate these different types of scenarios from a different perspective than technology. How will this save money in the community, how will this be affected by the nature and how will those artificial creations exist in balance with the chain of nature?

Is it just a civil engineer enough to construct a building? Then how does the electrical system need to be placed, how to manage the plumbing system of the house and how to control sanitation facilities and comfort levels to be fit for the humans? Well engineering creation is a kind of computer operating system and the each of specific processes of the operating system to be programmed by well experienced programmers such like mechanical, electrical, civil, chemical engineering professionals. Also the money, which is considered as a critical factor of the current world should be handled by respected professionals and the impact of the environment and human health should be altered by environmentalists and responsible parties. This all the combination will create optimistic and peaceful environment for the humans and all other species in the world.

So, the InnoEnergy Master School is a creates place to see all kind of energy professionals together in a one roof. Every year, the first year group of the seven cutting edge masters programmes gather in a place to exchange their experience and build interconnections between each other. The Master's School KickOff event was held in the Königstein, Germany, November 17-18, 2016. The event was spread over one and a half day with interactive activities between students of all masters of the InnoEnergy master school.

In the event not only students but also some industrial collaborations such as start-up and Academic staff also involve with the activities with students. This was a really good opportunity for the students to interact with the international community and get to know each other with academics from different perspectives and make connections. 

MSc SELECT group
And we had a chance to interact and discuss with the peoples who working with the startups who shared their experiences and had advice on how we could succeed with our future goals. Especially , this is a very rare opportunity to meet all students in different programs, get to know their way of thinking while doing the activities. Also solving, answering problems with them is really useful for developing our soft skills and different perspective of thinking.

[Photo Credits: InnoEnergy]

Poland vs. Portugal (part 2)

Coming to Lisbon, Portugal, you see all the joys of the nice sunny weather. Known for its sunny weather throughout the whole year, it’s one of the top tourist destinations in Europe. One blog post is definitely way too short to highlight Lisbon, I will just say that there is something for everyone. 
One of the best known places nearby is the huge beach Carcavelos. After arrival in Lisbon, that will be for sure among the first places that you will visit and will come to it, again and again.

No-one complains about the great climate, and there is interesting things from architecture, art, culture, sport and music events, and many other things. If by some chance you get bores in Lisbon (which is both theoretically and practically impossible :D), you can go and explore some places nearby, such as Sesimbra. Going to a distant beach, can be a nice way to have one lovely day outside the city crowd.

My personal passion are ships, so I take every opportunity to spend time on them, or to go to museums related to them. 

And being known as the country with probably the biggest naval tradition, Portugal is the place where you can find everything you want about ships.

For sure you will find a lot of museums in Portugal on all possible thematics. I will recommend you Museu da Marina in Belem, as a place which can't be missed. It's my favorite one. 

Aa yeah, this post started with football J Well, for all the football fans, you will have plenty of fun around. I got the opportunity to watch a lot of matches in both countries, and was absolutely delighted with that. However watching Benfica matches is just wonderful experience and something that any football enthusiast can't afford to skip.

Well, as I wrote in the beginning of the first part, this is merely a brief preview of the attractions in these two countries. There is much much more to be done and written for. Once again Poland and Portugal are equalized. This comparison reminds me about the football match they played, and once again it's difficult to say if someone is better, or just say that both countries are great.

I hope that the new students from CFAFE program will find this useful and will have an idea what they might expect and do during their studies.

Poland vs. Portugal (part 1)

Last times, these two countries played a football match on The European Championship (France 2016), it was so tight that it ended up on penalties. Let’s see how they fare in performance for student life J

As this was meant to be done in one blog post, I soon realized that the space won’t be enough, so I decided to make it in two parts. While doing that, I realized (once again), that I can’t present all what I want and find important, so for sure there will be additional work on this topic, just remains to be seen if it will be again on blog or maybe through some video.
Comparing country from north east of Europe to one from south-west is not an easy task. By default difference is huge here. Perhaps direct comparison might not be so helpful here, so I go by displaying the unique sides of both countries.

I spent one year in the south part of Poland, in the Silesian Voivodeship (polish term for province). This region is well known for the vast industrial tradition and the high level of development, due to the competitive industry. It is very well connected with transport infrastructure to all the major cities of the nearby countries such as Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria.
Although we were located in Gliwice, Krakow was quite close, and because of the many events organized, we were going there very often. The Rynek (square) on a sunny day is something that absolutely can’t be skipped.

Before going abroad, it is a good idea to check the local places available first. We were lucky to have the mountains nearby. Ski centers such as Szcyrk, Wisla Malinka and Zakopane, were very close to both centers for InnoEnergy - Gliwice and Krakow.

Although I come from a southern country, I love winter - especially with a lot of snow. The winter period in Poland provided some great experiences and memories.

Being in this region, you are assured to have a lot of snow in the winter – and all the joy that comes with it. Enjoying the snow, and all the winter fun, with prices much lower compared to similar places in other European countries, is something you can’t afford to miss!

This was just a brief display of some of the activities outside of the study program during my stay in Poland. It is up to the upcoming students to decide if they have similar preferences, or they would prefer to experience and share other types of activities. Without any doubt, Poland has a lot of interesting activities to offer, and I am sure that the students from the new CFAFE intake won't be bored there ;) 

Are you a summer or winter type of person? While being on this program (CFAFE), you can be both J

Stay tuned here, to see the case for Portugal ;) 

Enjoying SELECT journey with sunshine in Lisbon

How lucky are you to spend time with your favorite people? Enjoying a few days with them hanging around under the sunshine of Lisbon. Have a chat in the morning while breakfast. Yes, I have been lucky to be with SELECT family again in Lisbon for Spring seminar 2017 between the period of 8th and 11th of May in the university of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST).

Vice president of the IST international affairs, Prof. Luis Miguel Silveira have welcomed students and teachers to the event with SELECT coordinators. Director of Infrastructure and Networks, Prof. Jorge Esteves and Eng. Cláudio Casimiro delivers invaded talks regarding the topics of “Energy Union and Regulation” and “Energy efficiency for business competitiveness” respectively. The first day dinner, EDP & KIC InnoEnergy evening was held in Museu DA Electricidade which is a great technical power plant environment for the engineers who are really loving with power sector with shorter presentations on few startups such as Power, C2C, Heaboo and Addvolt.

For the second day Prof. Ivanka Visnjic, professor of ESADE have delivered a course on “Design Thinking” for first year student. Further “Dealing with Intellectual Property Rights” and “Digital Marketing” courses have delivered from the professors of ESADE Prof. Carles Puente and Prof. David Lopez respectively for the second years. ESADE sessions have conducted as an interactive group work and practical sessions was really helpful for the qualitative absorption and better understanding of the contents of the course.

During ESADE course group work

First year and Second year students Project in Energy Systems Analysis (PoY) and Integrated project of the year in sustainable energy (IPoY) presentations were delivered by the final day (11th of May) of the program and second year student poster session of thesis is conducted for the brief their studio works for the first years and teachers. The poster session was a great opportunity and guide for the first year student to make their decisions while choosing the correct path towards the success research.

Since the Fall seminar which journey starts from the Stockholm and we had a wonderful time in Germany kickoff, ESADE business school in Spain. The final event of the academic year Spring seminar in Portugal was ended in the restaurant “COIMBRA TABERNA” farewell party which was a great enjoyable moment of my life, I guess it is a great moment of all of our SELECT family.

"COIMBRA TABERNA" farewell evening
[Photo credits: Denitsa Kuzeva]
[Cover photo credit: Olga Gerasimenko]

You call it “Pera”, and we call it “Heaven”

Have you ever wanted to study in a beautiful place in touch with the environment? Well, I have spent more than 4 years as a bachelor student and 2 years as a temporary base staff member in the University of Peradeniya, which is called “Heaven” by the peoples who are lucky to be at Peradeniya as a student or as a staff member. Peradeniya university is the largest residence Garden university in Sri Lanka which spread over more than 700 hectares in the Mahaweli river flood plain.

The university is bounded by the beautiful mountain region called “Hanthana” and currently more than 11,000 students are pursuing their bachelor studies under nine faculties. Faculty of Engineering located on a one side of the Mahaweli river bank and all other facilities located on the other side of the river. Two sides of a river joined by the bridge called “Akbar” which build the first engineering graduate batch from university.
Akbar bridge
The university senate house is located in the middle of the university top of the stone towers. Peradeniya is the only one university which perusing Dental Sciences and Veterinary Medicine degrees in the Sri Lanka. The university is fully equipped with gymnasium, playground complex, banks, Open air theater, film, theater, second largest Library of the country and religious places for each of the religions.
Senate House

Students are resident in the more than 15 hostels and they have a beautiful night life in the university premises. Open air theater is contracted without damaging the natural terrain. Actors are acting live in the center of the theater and the audience seated around them. Most of the times drama festival week organized based on some special events such as literature month, graduation and country famous stage dramas are shown in the Professor Ediriweera Sarachchandra open air theater the artist who graduate from the Peradeniya and founder of the open air theater.

On the other hand, university of Peradeniya is a mix cultured university of the students who study from all over the Sri Lanka. Sinhala, Tamil, Muslim and all other cultural students learn with corporation and they all enrolled with the extra-curricular activities such as New year festivals, Religious festivals and sport activities. Also, students of the University struggled for the students’ rights as well as the public rights of the Sri Lanka against government decisions and university decisions.

Students of the University go beyond their studies and move to the society to accomplish their responsibilities. Each of the faculties organizes their own programs under Main students’ union. As an example program such as “Arunella” organized by Engineering students’ union conducting the more than three-month period of Maths and Science seminar series for G.C.E. Ordinary level examination students in low facilitated schools in the country. University students raised money from the community for the programs and they expend their free time such as weekend to equip those students from rural areas for complete their examinations successfully. And successful students have appreciated with grants for their higher education.

Being with the multicultural environment with closer touch with the nature will make the students' mind in a peaceful place and that will motivate them to success their studies as well as to become lover to the all nationalities and the environment. University of Peradeniya is the greatest place which contributes good artists, beautiful memories and thousand numbers of professionals in the world and that is a place which posed for the most of the love stories and breakups. So most of the people called it “Pera” and we called “Heaven”
Iconic Lion statue for University
["around PERA", Pasindu Perera]
Faculty of Engineering
University in the flower season
View of the mountain region "Hanthana" from Faculty of Engineering
No automatic alt text available.
Professor Ediriweera Sarachchandra open air theater

Technical Visit to the Açores

Last week, IST in Lisbon invited the ENTECH and SELECT Master's programs on a technical visit to the gorgeous Açores island of São Miguel off of Portugal. The Açores islands are one of the best sites for geothermal energy in the world, so naturally that is where the visit started. We first went to the headquarters of Electricidade dos Açores (EDA) to hear some presentations from the CEO, Duarte Ponte, and two engineers working there, David Estrela and Fernando Henriques. We were taken to some of the geysers to see the incredible natural boiling water coming from the Earth, which is what was used to cook our lunch! We ate at the Caldeiras Restaurante-Bar after watching them actually cooking our meal in the hot springs (talk about free, clean energy!). The steamed codfish and vegetables were incredible, especially knowing that they were cooked simply by the heat of the Earth's natural resources.

After lunch, we visited the Pico Vermelho geothermal power plant. Dr. Maria da Graça Rangel gave a short presentation on the plant before showing it to us since once we went to the plant, it was quite loud to hear anything. The Pico Vermelho plant of 13 MW combined with four more geothermal plants on the island of 16.6 MW, provide a total power of almost 30 MW of geothermal energy, covering around 35% of the island's electricity needs. It was the first geothermal plant I had ever been to and despite the noise of the high-pressure steam being expelled from four different pipes, it felt very calm and clean to be producing 13 MW of electricity.

We then went to see some breaktaking views at Lagoa do Fogo (literally translated to Lake of Fire), where due to the crazy changing of rain to sun every five minutes, we witnessed a rainbow overlooking this gorgeous lake.

The next day brought us to the Caldeirão thermal plant. Here we were given brief presentations by engineers Egído Oliveira and Crispim Borges da Ponte. Then we strapped on our helmets and ear plugs and got to explore the plant. It was a stark contrast to the quite clean geothermal plant we had visited the day before, with oil covering many equipment parts and the extreme noise drowning out any sound of our voices. In contrast to the mere 13 MW of the Pico Vermelho plant though, this plant provides a whopping 98 MW of power, covering around 54% of the island's electricity needs from just one plant. 
Caldeirão thermal plant

We then had another traditional lunch at the Miroma restaurant, this time various meats and vegetables cooked by geothermal energy and visited the region of Furnas (so-named due to the several geysers, or "furnaces" in this area). The plentiful geysers was a true testament to the energy Earth can provide us with without the need to dig down too deep. After seeing some more incredible viewpoints over pristine lakes, the trip came to an end.

Lagoas das Sete Cidades: Lagoa Verde e Lagoa Azul 

It was an incredible couple of days in São Miguel island. Thank you so much to EDA and the ENTECH and SELECT MScs for sponsoring the technical visit and to all the amazing coordinators and staff at IST for their hard work in planning the trip and being our trusty photographers: Marta Abrantes, Duarte de Mesquita e Sousa, José Alberto Caiado Falcão de Campos, Jorge Matos and José Manuel Vaz Velho Barbosa Marques.

Why students should select MSc SELECT?

Everybody learns for sustaining their life, people who have goals to achieve their dreams as much as they can, expend their life as a respectable citizen of their country. Most of the children around the world suffer lack of education due to proper facilities, resource persons and purity. And again from those existing education system students are suffering from quality which gave useful education other than just theories.The majority of countries teach based on the single side biased approach. Just by focusing technological matter or other areas such as economics, environmental studies, social relationships separately.

After student displace to the society which have to get responsibility of the working sector are growing up to the studies sector, students may feel that unsuccessful of their one side biased education because of the lack of sense of the real world problems. And It is something different than theories and also a mix of all kinds of subject areas.

Pathways for Sustainable Energy Systems, Masters program is a great approach and good example of the qualitative education with real applications rather than just learning theories in the classroom. And also this is good opportunity to get to know and feel international relationships because of the different varieties of student mixture of the program. And feel about their thinking strategies and our position in the international scope.

The program is initiated in Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain (UPC) and Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (KTH). First year continues in those two universities, according to their preference in the application process and students will meet each other few different locations such as Fall seminar, Spring seminar and ESADE crash course. And after the first semester according to the students’ performances, background and motivation to the specific subject area second year selection will be done to other university except first year university.Sustainable Biomass Processing in Aalto University, Finland (Aalto), Combined Energy Systems in Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden (KTH), Offshore Energy Systems in Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal (IST), Solar Systems in Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain (UPC), Innovation in Energy Systems at Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands (TU/e), Energy Efficiency in Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy (PoliTo) and Sustainable Fuels Economy in University of Science and Technology, Poland (AGH) are the specialization subject fields for second year specialization regarding the respected universities. From their second year they can follow a specific path with relevant subject matters, collaborated works such as integrated project of the year and thesis work. And at the end of the program you will be awarded dual masters by both first and second year universities according to their specializations.

The important role of this study program is, this consists with innovation studies with real world project and program studies automatically setup student to the working environment and enhance their social relationships by collaborative works and broad knowledge of technical knowledge and with a good basement of interconnection of social systems, environmental consequences, economics to those relevant technologies. And program intension is to foam new technological business startups rather than working in a company or learning further after the graduation.

Qualitative subject content, higher level of international social and industrial exposure and collaborative work patter of the programs are really good motivations for the students to be a part of the MSc SELECT program rather moving to the other programs. Personally, I have accepted other program somewhat highly based on the technical side at the same time I got accepted by MSc SELECT and I have taken my decision to grab the opportunity to be a part of sustainable education through SELECT.

Exploring energy systems: South Africa

Energy systems around the world have evolved differently, and electricity production in each country is the product of a unique set of problems, circumstances and solutions. Expanding on these different viewpoints helps us to innovate in this field.  I will take this opportunity to shed some ‘light’ on electricity production in South Africa.

South Africa is well-known for many things - sunshine, Table Mountain, Great white sharks, Kruger National Park – but there are a few more interesting things that fly under the radar. One of these things is the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producers Procurement Program (as one can imagine, no one ever says that out loud – it is simply called REI4P), which has actually received much international acclaim in the energy-policy sphere but is still not very well known to the average student studying in the energy field. But before we explore the REI4P, we have to understand the original energy sector.

95% of electricity in South Africa is generated, transmitted and distributed by one public utility: Eskom. Eskom is owned by the South African government, and up until the start of the REI4P, Eskom owned all electricity plants as well as the grid and all associated infrastructure. South Africa has a large reserve of high quality coal, and therefore majority of electricity up until the early 2000s was produced from coal power, with a few additional megawatts of hydro power and pumped storage.

In 2007, electricity demand in South Africa outgrew supply and generation capacity. Rolling blackouts plagued the nation over the next few years, and Eskom implemented a ‘load-shedding’ program in 2014 for scheduled blackout periods across South Africa in order to stabilize the grid. In 2010, government plans were initiated in order to increase the energy mix of South Africa, and most importantly, to bring 17 800 MW of low-carbon energy to the grid by 2030.

Since Eskom owns all the infrastructure to supply electricity but cannot fund all new power plants which are needed to increase capacity and the energy mix, the idea was to have the private sector invest in the energy sector, such that the private sector funds and builds the plants, which produce electricity that is then bought and distributed by Eskom. Given that the South African government also intends to raise the industry and living standards of South African people, these investments are tied to socio-economic development goals.
The REI4P was born from the successful implementation of competitive tenders put forward by the private sector in order to implement utility-scale renewable energy plants that supply electricity to the grid. Basically, it works as follows: 
  • Eskom puts out a Request for Proposals (RFP) for a certain capacity of renewable energy (split into different types, example wind or solar PV) and opens the tender for bidding (bid window)
  • The RFP specifies the maximum bidding tariff and minimum socio-economic development contributions
  • Private companies bid on their proposed plant tariffs and socio-economic development objectives
  • The bid winners enter a Private Partnership Agreement (PPA) with the Buyer (Eskom) and can then build their plants whilst also achieving their socio-economic development goals
There have been 4 successful bid windows. As of October 2016, 6 800 MW of RE has been procured, and 1/3 of that is already online. 

Currently, the REI4P has been stalled due to a number of reasons, the biggest of which is that Eskom and some key players in South African government would like to stop buying power from RE plants, and rather build a new nuclear power plant. With RE becoming cheaper each year, this seems to make little financial sense – and the opposition retorts that Eskom only wants to build more nuclear and coal power plants to enhance its control on energy generation and prices thereof. This is born of the reality that Eskom generates, transmits and distributes power itself, and is therefore directly competing with all other generation forms – and as the only Buyer, it will naturally be incentivised to buy power from its own generation methods. Furthermore, Eskom has already invested millions into upgrading current coal power and bringing some new large coal power plants online and there are predictions that by 2030 South Africa will have an oversupply of expensive electricity.

As in every country, energy and politics have become intertwined and the way forward is never clear, but South Africans remain hopeful that the government exercises prudence when making decisions about energy sources: lower energy prices from RE sources could lead to the boost in industry that South Africa needs.
Some fun facts about the REI4P:
  • The first bid window opened in November 2011, the average price for bids was R2.52/kWh (~€0.18/kWh)
  • In bid window 4, the average price for bids was R0.82/kWh (~€0.06/kWh)
  • 1-3% of top line turnover of each IPP agreement is put towards community projects leading to socio-economic upliftment

Loads of interesting information can be found out about the REI4P, and here is the official website. Projects from bid windows 1-4 are shown in this map, with the numbers in the markers defining the bid window, and the colour of the marker defining the type of technology [Source: energy blog, 2016].

[Photo of Dassiesklip Wind Energy Facility by myself, 2016]

Innoenergy Master School

This is a blog for the students of InnoEnergy Master's School.